"Randy Cassingham, a Dvorak keyboard nutball...."
--John Dvorak (no relation), PC Magazine


The Dvorak Keyboard

A Brief Primer
by Randy Cassingham
Author, The Dvorak Keyboard, This is True, and the True Stella Awards


[Dvorak keyboard diagram]

The Dvorak keyboard is an ergonomic alternative to the layout commonly found on typewriters and computers known as "Qwerty". The Qwerty keyboard was designed in the 1870s to accommodate the slow mechanical movement of early typewriters. When it was designed, touch typing literally hadn't even been thought of yet! It's hardly an efficient design for today's use. By contrast, the Dvorak (pronounced "duh-VOR-ack", not like the Czech composer!) keyboard was designed with emphasis on typist comfort, high productivity and ease of learning -- it's much easier to learn! There were several variations in the Dvorak's design in its first few decades, but these were settled when the American National Standards Institute approved a standard for the layout of the Dvorak in 1982. The diagram above shows the standard layout as adapted for PC use.

Because computers weren't even a researcher's dream in the late 1920s and 30s, the Dvorak design took about 12 years to perfect, and included extensive study of languages using the Roman alphabet (mostly English), the physiology of the hand, and practical studies. Dr. Dvorak (Univ. of Washington, Seattle; b.1894, d.1975) used his research to design two other keyboards specifically for people with only one hand (one each for the right and left), which allow people with the use of just one hand to type very easily and efficiently -- at speeds up to 50 wpm.

The Dvorak has the most-used consonants on the right side of the home row, and the vowels on the left side of the home row. Among other design features, it is set up to facilitate keying in a back-and-forth motion -- (right hand, then left hand, then right, etc.) When the same hand has to be used for more than one letter in a row (e.g., the common t-h), it is designed not only to use different fingers when possible (to make keying quicker and easier), but also to progress from the outer fingers to the inner fingers ("inboard stroke flow") -- it's easier to drum your fingers this way (try it on the tabletop). The back-and-forth flow obviously makes typing quicker and easier: try typing the word "minimum" on the Qwerty keyboard, then look how you'd type it on Dvorak. The design puts fully 70 percent of all English keystrokes on the home row (only 32 percent of Qwerty's are on the home row), making Dvorak much easier, faster, and -- probably (no formal studies have been done as yet) -- less likely to result in carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetitive motion injuries.

Remember when you took typing classes, probably in high school? You got to do drills with such words as "fff", "jjj", "jkl;". Added to the awkward physical motions Qwerty requires, these "nonsense words" are counter-intuitive, making Qwerty very hard to learn. On Dvorak, the keys on the home row make up literally thousands of words (we have a list of nearly 5000 from one electronic dictionary alone!), meaning you could have typed real words on your first day of typing class... if you had learned on a Dvorak keyboard.

The row above the home row contains the next-most-used letters and punctuation. Why? Because it is easier for your fingers to reach up on the keyboard than down. The least-used keys are on the bottom row.

Even if you don't want to switch (it's actually fairly easy -- Randy Cassingham did it, and his typing speed went from 50 WPM to over 100), why the heck are we forcing children to learn the draconian ergonomic failure "Qwerty" when there's a such a good alternative available? Why teach kids for weeks and weeks and weeks to master a complex skill when in two or three weeks they could learn Dvorak and then get on with what they're at the keyboard to do! Writing, programming ...creating!

If it's so good, why isn't everyone using it? Clearly, a good question. There are a lot of reasons for it, and they are too numerous and complicated to explain fully here (they are fully explained in the book The Dvorak Keyboard). Mainly, the Qwerty keyboard became entrenched in tradition. By the time Dr. Dvorak came up with his design, there were hundreds of thousands of typewriters, and it would have cost millions to convert them all over. The switch was just about to be made, but then World War II broke out, and the War Dept. ordered all typewriter keyboards be set to the most-common standard -- Qwerty -- and typewriter manufacturers retooled to produce small arms. By the end of the war, Qwerty was cast in concrete.

There are other reasons, too. Unbelieveably, there are people with personal vendettas against the Dvorak. In 1956, a U.S. government researcher published an astoundingly biased "study" that railed against the Dvorak layout. When other researchers found the conclusions suspicious, they asked to see the raw data -- but the government researcher had destroyed it all! Yet the anti-Dvorak still point to the "study" by the General Services Administration as "proof" that there's something wrong with the Dvorak. But their "evidence" doesn't even exist. Such vendettas exist now, too. The most commonly quoted anti-Dvorak screed over the past few years is one by Stan Liebowitz and Stephen Margolis. Randy responded to that one way back in 1995 (copy of that here).

Certainly, people are using it. How many? Who knows -- unlike typewriters, which needed precision mechanical work to convert them, computers are by their nature programmable, and it's a cinch to convert them to Dvorak. So how many people have actually done it? The only way to really find out is to do an expensive controlled survey, and no one is rushing forth with the money to fund such a study.

To learn more about the Dvorak layout, we recommend two levels of information. Freelance Communications is the exclusive distributor of Typewriting Behavior, Dr. Dvorak's 546-page book on the keyboard's research and design -- it's a classic! The book was printed in 1936, and there will never be any more. For a less technical overview of the Dvorak layout, Randy Cassingham's 1986 book The Dvorak Keyboard clearly explains what's "wrong" with Qwerty and what's "right" about the Dvorak, gives a nice overview on how the Dvorak layout was designed, including its evolution since 1936, and contains an overview of the one-handed layouts.


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http://www.Dvorak-Keyboard.com
Updated: April 2012